Analog Shunt-mode 12V 500mA Solar Charge Controller

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Analog solar shunt-mode charge controller picture

Analog solar shunt-mode charge controller schematic

Analog Shunt-mode Solar Charge Controller

(C) 2010, G. Forrest Cook

Introduction

This circuit is an analog alternative to the switching Shunt-mode Solar/Wind Charge Controller. It is one of the simplest ways to regulate the solar charging of a rechargeable battery, using about a dozen parts. Despite its simplicity, the circuit is relatively efficient. Unlike the all-or-nothing switching shunt-mode controller, this circuit gradually diverts solar power from the battery to the dump load resistor as the battery reaches the preset battery float voltage. As shown, the circuit is limited to 500mA of solar charging current. Higher power systems will be better served with a series switching charge controller.

The circuit shown is set up to charge a 12V battery, it can be modified to support both lower and higher voltage battery systems by changing the value of the 39K resistor.

Specifications

Solar Panel Open Circuit Voltage: 18V (36 cells)
Solar Panel Short Circuit Current: 0-500 mA max.
Battery Voltage: 12V (nom.), can support other voltages with minor mods.
Battery Capacity: 0.1 to 20 Amp Hours

Theory

Solar power is routed from the PV panel through the 1N5818 Schottky diode to the battery. As the charging battery's voltage rises, the TL431AC IC voltage rises up to the point of regulation. Above this point, the TIP30B transistor starts to conduct. The TIP30B connects the 22 ohm load resistor across the PV panel and diverts the excess charging current to the load in order to maintain a constant voltage across the PV panel. During regulation, part of the power is dissipated in the 22 ohm resistor and the rest is dissipated in the TIP30B transistor.

The 1N5818 diode allows PV charging current to flow into the battery during charging, but prevents a reverse current flow into the regulator circuit at night. The diode is a Schottky type which has a lower forward voltage drop (around 0.4V) compared to a regular silicon diode, this improves the efficiency of the circuit.

Construction

The circuitry was built in "dead bug style" on a blank piece of copper-clad printed circuit board as shown in the upper photograph. A four wire terminal block was screwed to the circuit board along with a medium sized TO220 heat sink. The TIP30B transistor was mounted to the heat sink using an electrically isolated heat transfer washer and a nylon shoulder washer. A suitably rated fuse should always be placed between the battery's positive terminal and the rest of the circuitry.

Alignment

Connect the PV panel to the PV inputs and a rechargeable 12V battery to the battery outputs. The battery should be pre-charged for easiest alignment. Point the panel at the sun, and monitor the battery voltage with a meter. Adjust the 20 turn 20K potentiometer until the battery reaches the desired float voltage. This is typically around 13.8V for gell-cell lead acid batteries.

Use

Place the PV panel in the sun, the battery will charge until it reaches the float voltage setting. When the battery reaches the float setting, the regulator circuit will dissipate all of the solar energy as heat. The heat sink and resistor get quite warm when running at the full 500mA solar current level.

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